Jupiter's outer atmosphere is primarily hydrogen and helium, with a few water droplets, ice crystals, and ammonia crystals thrown in for good measure. When these components combine to form clouds, they produce the Jupiter hues of white, orange, brown, and red.
The planet itself is mostly hydrogen and helium with some rock (including iron), water, and gas (methane and other gases). The gravity on Jupiter is about 9.5 times that of Earth, so it should be no surprise that it takes 10 days for every hour on Jupiter. It also has a large magnetic field generated by its core of molten metal.
Jupiter was once like our own Moon, but then something terrible happened: Jupiter collided with another giant body, sending debris flying into space. This material formed many thousands of tiny objects around us today. Some of these asteroids were big enough to become planets themselves, but most became moons: Jupiter's four largest moons are called Europa, Gaea, Io, and Styx.
Our solar system has several other small planets that were not big enough to cause havoc upon their creation. They usually orbit their parent star at a distance less than Mercury or Venus but more than Mars or Ceres. Many scientists think there might be other planets out there beyond Neptune, but we have never seen one directly.
Jupiter is classified as a gas giant planet. Its atmosphere, like the sun's, is mostly composed of hydrogen gas and helium gas. The planet is shrouded in dense clouds of crimson, brown, yellow, and white. Beneath these clouds are layers of blue-green oceans containing water, carbon dioxide, and other substances.
The interior of Jupiter is mainly made up of hydrogen and helium with some rock and iron underneath. It has four large moons: Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto.
Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system. It has 27 large volcanic regions that have been names by scientists from Galileo down to Linzell. Some of these regions are still active today!
Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system. It is larger than Earth's moon and bears similarities to our moon when it was forming. Jove is the name given to one of Jupiter's main storms which can span an area of the planet the size of Europe. It forms from intense heat and pressure at the center of the storm and bursts into life every 10 years or so.
Europa is the most geologically active body in the solar system. There are many craters on its surface that are over 100 miles across.
The Great Red Spot is one of Jupiter's most well-known features. It is an enormous storm system that has been observed by astronomers for over 400 years!
Like all other planets, Jupiter was once a part of its parent star. Over time, the planet's own gravity pulled it away from the heat of the sun and transformed it into what we see today.
Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. It is also the most massive. Although many people think of Neptune when they hear about large planets, Jupiter is actually more massive. Earth's mass is about 5% that of Jupiter, whereas Neptune is only 1/5th Jupiter's mass. This is why scientists are interested in studying Jupiter. It is the biggest object in our solar system beyond Earth's moon, and because of this reason it provides us with important clues to explain how other planets were formed out of dust disks surrounding their stars.
Jupiter has four major moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. These bodies experience a different type of climate due to their locations with respect to Jupiter's gravity. Io is the innermost moon and is subjected to intense radiation from Jupiter itself.
Jupiter and Saturn are too hot for methane to condense, hence they are not blue. Jupiter and Saturn's colourful bands are attributable in part to their compositions: Clouds of water and ammonia reflect white light, but clouds of ammonium hydrosulfide reflect brown and red light. The colours of Uranus and Neptune are due to how their atmospheres scatter blue light.
Jupiter, like the sun, is mostly made up of hydrogen and helium. It has a small fraction of metals like iron and nickel inside its body. In addition, it contains large amounts of water ice in its southern hemisphere.
Jupiter has 67 natural satellites known as moonlets. They are important sources of information about our neighbor planet. The largest, Jupiter Island, which can be seen with the naked eye from Earth, is larger than Earth itself.
The solar system's largest planet, Jupiter is often called "the king of planets". It is a gas giant that orbits the Sun once every 119 days. Although less massive than both Uranus and Neptune, it is also much farther away from the Sun. Thus, it can be considered stable and reliable.
Jupiter has four major geologic provinces: the North Atlantic Ocean Basin, the European Continent, the Indian Subcontinent, and the Pacific Ocean Basin. These areas are distinguished by different types of rocks that were formed by different processes. The European Province is made up of a series of thick layers of rock that was created when an earlier version of Jupiter collided with another planet or star.
Jupiter, the biggest planet in the solar system, reflects a variety of colors including white, red, orange, brown, and yellow. Storms in Jupiter's atmosphere cause changes in its hues; these storms allow various compounds to ascend from locations closer to the planet's core to the tops of the clouds. The more sulfur-containing molecules appear in Jupiter as yellow or gold lights when viewed through Earth's atmosphere, while oxygen causes red lights.
Venus, the second-largest planet, is mostly blue with white clouds that reach up to 24,000 feet above the surface. There are no weather patterns on Venus, but there might be water under its crust, which could be heated by the sun and turned into vapor that rises as clouds. If so, it would be the only place in the solar system where this happens.
Earth, the third-largest planet, is a glistening blue marble with an iron core, dry land, and oceans covering nearly three-quarters of its surface area. It has no permanent moons but does have eight major moons: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Io, Ganymede, Titan, and Europa. All together they account for less than one percent of Earth's mass.
Saturn, the fifth planet, is a beautiful yellow color because it is covered by clouds made of liquid methane.