Jupiter's clouds have a temperature of roughly -145 degrees Celsius (minus 234 degrees Fahrenheit). The temperature at the planet's core is significantly higher. The core temperature might reach as high as 24,000 degrees Celsius (43,000 degrees Fahrenheit). That's hotter than the sun's surface!
Jupiter has the most massive atmosphere in the solar system. It's made up of hydrogen molecules and helium atoms. There are also traces of water vapor, ammonia, and methane. The composition of the atmosphere changes with depth. The gas above the cloud deck is 95% nitrogen but below this it becomes increasingly rich in oxygen and decreases in molecular weight. This is because there are more and more molecules per atom as you go down.
Any atmosphere will always try to even out its temperature by moving heat from the hot to the cold side. On Earth, this is done using clouds, but on Jupiter these processes are controlled by gravity - mountains on earth force air upward which increases pressure which causes it to cool down, while deep valleys allow warm air to flow downward which reduces pressure and allows it to heat up.
On Jupiter, this effect is much more significant because of its size. The top of Jupiter's atmosphere is about 50 times deeper than the bottom! As a result, temperatures vary by 50 degrees Celsius (90 degrees Fahrenheit) or more across its diameter.
Jupiter has no solid surface since it is a gas giant, hence it has no surface temperature. However, measurements collected from the top of Jupiter's clouds show a temperature of about -145 degrees Celsius. The planet's temperature rises as it moves closer to the core due to atmospheric pressure. At its most distant orbit, around 584 million km from the Sun, Jupiter's average temperature is only -82 degrees Celsius.
However, temperatures can vary greatly over short distances on Jupiter. The Great Red Spot for example, is an enormous storm that has been observed since 1665 that has been measured to have a peak wind speed of 150 m/s (560 km/hr). This makes it one of the strongest storms in the solar system. It is believed that the Great Red Spot originates from deep within Jupiter's atmosphere where it is driven by currents created by Jupiter's gravity. As the name suggests, these currents are mainly red in color because they contain large amounts of sulphur dioxide.
The coldest point on Jupiter is called the South Pole and it reaches -420 degrees Celsius. Just like Earth, Jupiter has a magnetic field which acts as a barrier between itself and everything else in space. So far, no spacecraft have been able to cross this barrier into Jupiter's interior; however, it is thought that there may be a liquid ocean beneath its crust.
Astronomers have known for almost 40 years that Jupiter's upper atmosphere is unexpectedly heated. Temperatures in the mid-latitudes average around 530 degrees Celsius (990 deg Fahrenheit). That's around 600 degrees Celsius (1,100 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer than if the sun were the only source of heat on the globe. The cause of this heat is still a matter of debate between those who think it may be due to currents in the planet's interior and those who believe it may be due to something external such as interactions with Saturn or Uranus.
Jupiter has more than 100 times as much mass as Earth but only about 10 percent of our surface area. This means that its weight is about 100 times as great but its surface area only 10 times as large. Thus, the gravitational force exerted by Jupiter on Earth is 100 times as great but because the planet is so far away, its influence on Earth is only 1/10th as strong.
The result of Jupiter's immense gravity is that it tries hard to pull us towards it. But because Earth orbits around the sun not the other way round, our distance from the center of Jupiter remains constant. So there are two effects of Jupiter's gravity: It pushes us away from the sun and pulls us closer towards itself.
This means that over time, Jupiter will slowly move us out of orbit around the sun. If it did this alone, we would be pulled into the planet in about 5 billion years.
Jupiter has an average temperature of -234 degrees Fahrenheit even in its hottest conditions (minus 145 degrees Celsius). Unlike Earth, where the temperature changes as one gets closer or further away from the equator, Jupiter's temperature is more affected by height above the surface. Tethys, one of Jupiter's large moons, has a surface temperature of -180 degrees F (and probably colder than that below its crust), while Ganymede, another large moon, has a surface temperature of +150 degrees F (or more).
These temperatures are not equal opportunities for heating and cooling. They result from differences in size and distance from the sun between Earth and these other planets. Earth's temperature is maintained mostly through changes in the amount of light energy received from the sun during different seasons. In the case of Jupiter, most of its energy comes from inside itself, so it needs less seasonal variation in brightness to remain at a constant temperature.
The other giant planets of Uranus and Neptune also appear to be frozen over much of their surfaces, but they receive only half as much light as Jupiter and therefore need to be warmed by their interior fluids to prevent permanent loss of heat through their outer layers.
Earth's average temperature is also influenced by many other factors including the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere, the orientation of Earth with respect to the sun, and the number of solar eclipses occurring each year.
Jupiter's temperature fluctuates from - 100 C (minus 150 F) to minus 160 C. (minus 260 F). The temperature rises to - 100 degrees Celsius (minus 150 degrees Fahrenheit) in Jupiter's next layer. Up to four deep clouds composed of water vapor, ammonia, and methane cover most of Jupiter.
The gas under Jupiter's surface is hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is blue in color. Above this lies a thin layer of helium, which is yellow in color. This is the atmosphere of Jupiter.
The average pressure inside Jupiter is 1,473 mbar (millibar), much higher than Earth's sea level pressure of 0.09 mbar (9 Pa). However, because Jupiter is so large, its interior is also very big, so the pressure there is only about 10% smaller than at the surface.
Jupiter has a magnetic field around it that is similar in strength to Earth's. It is made up of several regions with different colors on Jupiter: red, orange, white, and black. These colors are not due to differences in temperature but rather to differences in composition.
Jupiter has four major moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. From closest to farthest away, they are: Jupiter, then Saturn, then Uranus, then Neptune.