It is also the closest to us of any planet. As a result of the "runaway greenhouse effect," the planet's temperature has risen to 465 °C, hot enough to melt lead. As a result, Venus is even hotter than Mercury. The surface of Venus is always hot because the atmosphere contains oxygen which produces a strong greenhouse effect.
Venus was once thought to be Earth's twin, but now we know it has been through many more climactic changes over time. It used to be covered in water, with an ocean covering 75% of its surface. But over time, the water evaporated due to the heat from the sun causing the climate to become increasingly hostile to life as we know it. Now, only minerals and some leftover hydrogen remain from when it was first formed.
Mercury has only been explored by humans for recent history, so we don't know what it was like before modern times, but based on how hot it is today, we can assume that it was much cooler then. Scientists think that it may have had oceans of liquid mercury under certain conditions, but they may have frozen during the dark periods of its history.
Currently, both planets are very cold with no evidence of any life. But that could change at any moment!
Even though Mercury is closest to the sun, it is the hottest planet in our solar system. The surface temperature of Venus is around 900 degrees Fahrenheit (475 degrees Celsius), which is hot enough to melt lead. Earth's sister planet has been exposed to such high temperatures for millions of years that there is no life on Earth today that could possibly survive there.
Venus was once like Earth with an atmosphere and water oceans covering its surface. But over time, the intense heat from the sun destroyed much of this atmosphere and evaporated most of the remaining water, leaving a cold desert planet today.
The conditions on Venus would have made survival difficult even for organisms capable of withstanding very high temperatures. Only those species able to find some way to adapt to these harsh conditions would have been able to survive. Today, only one type of organism can be found on Venus: the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula). These plants use the same process of photosynthesis as other plants, but they also have special sensors that detect whether something is moving near the plant. If so, the plant closes its leaves automatically so that it can catch its prey.
Scientists think that early life on Earth may have begun with microbes that were able to grow energy efficiently using carbon dioxide and sunlight. Some scientists believe that animals might have evolved from these first organisms.
The majority of the heat from the sun is trapped by carbon dioxide. Cloud layers also serve as a blanket.
Venus and Mercury are both planets that orbit the Sun. However they are not identical in size or distance from the Sun. These differences between the two planets account for their different surface temperatures. Earth's atmosphere protects it from most of the heat flow from the Sun. This means that Earth can maintain a stable surface temperature. If Earth had an atmosphere like Venus' CO2 one, then our world would be too hot for life as we know it.
The reason Venus is so hot while Mars is cold is because they receive sunlight from different angles. On Venus, all the sunlight strikes the surface head-on, heating it up. On Mars, however, half the light from the Sun reaches it and doesn't get reflected back into space. This lack of reflection causes Mars to look white or grey instead of red.
Another factor contributing to Venus' high temperature is its cloud cover. The thick clouds block out much of the Sun's energy, allowing Veneus to use its own internal heat to remain active today. Without this protective layer, Venus would be far too hot for any kind of life.