Mercury is extremely heavy, weighing 13.6 times as much as the equivalent volume of water, according to CNR. At ambient temperature, mercury is the only metal that is liquid. It is also the heaviest element on the planet per unit volume.
Although mercury is a liquid at room temperature, it is a gas under normal conditions. This is because each mercury atom has eight electrons in its outer shell, and these electrons are available to share with other atoms. The more atoms that share their electrons, the less tightly they hold on to them. This can lead to molecules being formed from groups of atoms, which can then drift away from each other.
This isn't always true for all forms of mercury. For example, elemental mercury is a gas at standard temperature and pressure because each atom has a full set of electrons around its nucleus.
The most common form of mercury is a liquid at room temperature. This form is called "mercury vapor" because it consists of an even mixture of gases including hydrogen (which has two electrons in its outer shell) and helium (which has two electrons in its outer shell).
Even though it's a mixture of gases, mercury vapor is still considered to be a single substance because it remains fluid even when very low temperatures are reached.
Mercury is a toxic, thick, silvery-white metal with a mirror-like appearance. At room temperature, it is the only common metal that is liquid. The name Mercury comes from the Greek word mérgēs, which means "rule over". In Roman mythology, Hermes was the god who taught humans how to work metals; therefore, mercury is considered a sacred metal for wizards and sorcerers.
Like other metals, mercury has a certain texture that determines how it will be processed by manufacturers and users. The two main types of mercury are elemental mercury and organic mercury.
Elemental mercury is pure mercury vapor that is solid at room temperature. It can be crushed or broken into very small pieces with the hands. When exposed to air or water, it forms a thin layer of mercury droplets that can be wiped away with a tissue. Elemental mercury is used in dental offices as a liquid filling material because it hardens when cooled down to create a permanent replacement tooth structure.
Organic mercury is found in three forms: leafy vegetables like spinach, fish with large amounts of mercury in their tissues, and dental amalgams. Organic mercury is dangerous because it can enter your body through your mouth, nose, or skin.
Mercury is a silvery, thick d-block element. It is the only metal that is liquid under conventional temperature and pressure conditions. Mercury is a poor conductor of heat yet a good conductor of electricity when compared to other metals. These properties make them useful in thermometers and electrical switches. However, use of mercury in devices requires special precautions because it can cause health problems if it comes into contact with the skin or if it is inhaled.
Because of its low density, mercury will float on water. This property is used in barometers as well as other types of meteorological instruments.
Mercury has many allotropic forms. Its most common form is a black powder that reacts with oxygen to form mercury oxide. Elemental mercury can be red, white, or gray depending on its purity. In addition to these solid forms, mercury also exists in two liquid forms: elemental mercury and organic mercury. Organic mercury is present in small amounts in some animal products (e.g., shark liver oil) and in large quantities in mining and processing plants.
Elemental mercury is the name given to pure liquid mercury that has not been separated into its components. It is used in laboratory experiments as an example of a reactive nonmetal that is both liquid at standard temperature and pressure and that has a low ionization energy.
Mercury is a peculiar material in that it is a metal that is liquid at ambient temperature. This is feasible since liquid nitrogen is significantly colder than -38.83 degrees Celsius, while mercury freezes solid at -38.83 degrees Celsius...
...Yes, liquid mercury can freeze.
The freezing point of mercury is -89.2 degrees Celsius, but it doesn't remain liquid at these temperatures. At some point, the mercury will freeze into a glassy state with very low thermal conductivity.
As long as you don't try to break or lift the ice (which would be difficult) it won't matter that the mercury is frozen into ice cubes. The ice will provide adequate protection for anything submerged beneath it.
The idea of this experiment may sound strange to you, but it has been done before. In fact, it was one of the first demonstrations of our current understanding of physics!
In 1714, French scientist Pierre Louis Maupertuis performed an experiment where he dropped liquid mercury into a freezer filled with ice and saw which material moved first: the ice or the mercury. He found that the ice froze first, preventing any possible contamination from happening during his experiment. He also noted that when the ice was removed from the freezer, it was still covered in liquid mercury.
Because mercury has a high density, most other substances float in it. Metals such as nickel, iron, and copper fall into this category, as do mixed solids such as most forms of stone and organic materials such as plastics and wood. Liquids and gases with lower densities than mercury will also float in it. Examples include water, alcohol, air, and oil.
Sinking agents are compounds that cause other substances to go down into liquid layers or out of liquids. Sinking agents can be natural or synthetic and can be used as pesticides or fungicides. When sinking agents are used in agriculture, they are called herbicides. Common sinking agents include calcium chloride, sodium polyacrylate, and barium sulfate. Calcium chloride is the most common salt used as a sinking agent. It acts by absorbing any moisture in the soil which makes the surface crust hard, preventing oxygen from reaching the root zone of plants causing them to die. Sodium polyacrylate is used as a herbicide for roadsides, railroads, and other areas where grasses and weeds compete with commercial crops. It works by blocking the growth processes of plants, killing them over time even after it has been watered regularly. Barium sulfate is used as a surfactant and herbicide. It works by reducing the ability of roots to absorb water, thereby inhibiting growth.
Mercury is toxic to humans, animals, and plants.