The earth revolves once every 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.09053 seconds, and its diameter is about 40,075 kilometers. Thus, in the equator, the earth's surface travels at a rate of 460 meters per second—roughly 1,000 miles per hour. This means that you could walk from London to Paris, then back again before the earth has made a full rotation.
At the poles, however, where there is no motion relative to the fixed stars, the earth's surface travels only 30 centimeters per second. Since the time required for a circle is proportional to the square of the radius, this means that it would take almost four years for the earth to spin round its axis at the equator.
In fact, since water evaporates from the oceans and plants grow during the day and die at night, we know that all parts of the ocean experience approximately the same amount of sunlight exposure each year. Therefore, using the equation I gave earlier, we can calculate that the earth rotates once in 24 hours. At the equator, it takes 24 hours, 15 minutes, and 58 seconds; but at the poles it takes 24 hours, 17 minutes, and 44 seconds.
This means that even though you cannot see or feel the earth rotating, it is actually spinning at a rate of 538.9 kilometers per hour - nearly 100 m/s faster than you thought!
Therefore, the radius of its orbit around the sun is about 42,742 kilometers.
Therefore, the earth's average distance from the sun is about 93 million kilometers, or about 69 million miles. The solar constant varies over time but it is generally believed that it averages 1,366 watts per square meter (W/m²) near the surface of the sun. That means that the total energy received by the earth system from the sun at any one time is about 1.5 x 10¹4 joules (1.5 E15 J).
Since the earth absorbs only a small fraction of this energy through the process of photosynthesis, most of it is lost to space in the form of heat. The average global temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit), but this can vary greatly from 0 degrees C (32 degrees F) to 50 degrees C (122 degrees F).
It has been 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4.09053 seconds. The speed of light is 300,000 km/s.
Time in Earth days: 1 day = 24 hours = 86,400 seconds
Time in Earth months: 1 month = 30 days = 80,400 seconds
Time in Earth years: 1 year = 365 days = 87,560 seconds
Time in Solar days: 1 solar day = 24 hours = 86,400 seconds
Time in Lunar nights: 1 lunar night = 1 month = 29 or 30 days depending on whether it's a waxing or waning moon = 25,920 seconds
Time in Mars months: 1 martian month = 6 Earth months = 36 Earth weeks = 72 Earth days
Time in Mercury days: 1 mercury day = 2 Earth days = 48 Earth hours
Time in Asteroid days: 1 asteroid day = 1/8640th of the total orbit period = 1/252080 of a full orbit = 584 Earth days
What is the rotational speed of the Earth? The circle of the Earth is 40,070 kilometers at the equator, and the day is 24 hours long, hence the speed is 1670 kilometers per hour (or 1037 miles per hour). At the poles, the distance is 25,000 kilometers, so the speed is 1750 kilometers per hour.
The rotation of the Earth is important because it explains many natural phenomena, including hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanoes. It also affects how people communicate with each other around the world via electromagnetic waves called radio signals or light beams called lasers. Radio signals travel faster than words spoken over a telephone line, so people listening across town or across the country see pictures flash by on their television screens every few seconds. Laser signals can carry data over large distances in minutes instead of days or weeks when using traditional cables.
At any given moment, all global land masses are spinning at nearly 1,972 kilometers per hour, about 1,005 miles per hour. This means that you could fly from New York to San Francisco and back again without ever getting off the ground. All it would take is about 18 minutes. However, if you were to do this in a plane with the cockpit door open, you would be taking great risks with your life and those of others around you because you would be flying through space while still falling under the influence of gravity.
Every 24 hours, the Earth rotates on its own axis (or, to be precise, every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4 seconds). The Earth's diameter is 24,898 miles (40,070 kilometers), therefore when distance is divided by time, the globe spins at 1,037 mph (1,670 km/h).
This is equivalent to going around once in a car that is traveling at 100 mph. If you were to get out and measure the length of a car's wheelbase-the distance between its two wheels-you could calculate how many times it would take to go the same distance again as the car travels 100 miles: it would be about 10 steps.
The reason this is important is that objects on Earth appear to stay in the same place during daytime and nighttime. Because of this, we can tell where east is by looking up at the sky and noticing which parts are still light and which are dark. East is that part of the sky that isn't yet dark.
The atmosphere also seems to remain still during daytime and nighttime. This is because clouds, wind, and other factors don't change position relative to each other or Earth over such a short period of time. They always stay in the same place relative to the horizon or sun.
So if something west of you is visible during daylight hours but not at night, then it must be in the eastern part of your field of view.
The Earth, in particular, revolves faster at the Equator than it does at the poles. The equatorial areas sprint at roughly 1,600 kilometers (1,000 miles) per hour to complete a 24-hour revolution because the Earth is broader at the Equator. The polar regions move more slowly because there's less surface area to cover.
This phenomenon explains why storms and other violent weather is seen more often in the equatorial regions of the Earth. And since the ground is moving past them faster, hurricanes, typhoons, and cyclones can grow stronger before dissipating. In fact, winds always blow toward the center of a rotating body like the Earth or a planet.
Earth's rotation is also why seasons occur on its surface. As the Earth orbits the Sun, it moves closer to and farther from it each year, which causes temperatures to vary from region to region. The axis of rotation of the Earth is not fixed in space; instead, it wobbles back and forth like a spinning top - this is why Earth has seasonal changes. The axis of rotation is almost directly over the Equator, so objects located there experience only one side of the earth every day. Objects in the Arctic and Antarctic circles experience both sides of the planet every day because the axis of rotation is tilted by about 23.5 degrees with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.