Mercury takes around 176 Earth days to revolve on its axis (from sunrise to dawn), whereas Earth only takes 24 hours. For one year on Mercury, it is day and for one year it is darkness. The sun never rises or sets; instead, it simply goes behind the horizon.
Night on Mercury is called "anda". Anda lasts for about 176 Earth days, until the next andanvel begins. Each anda is divided into two periods called "albedo" and "solsticial". Albedo starts when the Sun comes out from behind the planet and ends when the next morning twilight appears in the west. Solsticial means "related to the sun", and it refers to the fact that the length of daytime varies during each anda as the position of the Sun changes relative to the orbit of Mercury.
The average temperature on Mercury is -180 degrees C. Nighttime on Mercury is very cold because there is no sunlight to heat up the planet's surface. The ground is frozen solid most of the time with only a few small regions that remain unfrozen during certain periods of time.
It would take Mercury more than 200 Earth years to rotate once on its axis, so all of the water under its crust would be forced upward toward the top of the planet where it would vaporize and escape into space.
The time it takes a planet to revolve or spin once on its axis is referred to as its day. Because Mercury revolves at a far slower rate than Earth, a day on Mercury is significantly longer than a day on Earth. A day on Mercury lasts 58.646 Earth days (1407.5 hours), whereas a day on Earth lasts 23.934 hours. As a result, the mercury pool gets drained over time.
Mercury has only two seasons: cold and dark. The average temperature near the surface is -180 degrees F, but it can get down to -350 degrees F. At these temperatures, all water ice would likely transform into gas, so there is no liquid water on the planet's surface. But because of the presence of hydrogen and helium, deep inside the planet there is water vapor, clouds, and possibly oceanic layers.
On Earth, we know that sunlight is needed to keep our planet warm enough for life. On Mercury, however, the sun is so powerful that it can burn away the atmosphere and expose the core, which is hot enough to sustain itself. The core may be the only place where life could exist on Mercury because the lack of air and water means that any signs of life would have evaporated away long before now.
The planet spins on its axis every 88 Earth days, making one rotation in 206 Earth days. Due to this slow rotation, each hour on Mercury is more than six times as long as on Earth.
Mercury completes five cycles around the sun in 440 days. It takes 87.5 years for mercury to make one full rotation around the sun.
The average distance of Mercury from the Sun is 59 million km (37 million miles). At this distance, sunlight strikes the planet at a rate of 500 watts per square meter (5,778 watts per square foot). This is more than enough energy to evaporate water and cause other changes on Mercury's surface.
However, because Mercury has no atmosphere or magnetic field, most of this energy is simply reflected back into space. Only a small part of it reaches the surface.
It is estimated that about 3% of the energy from the Sun's radiation reachesMercury's surface. This is enough heat to melt iron, but because much of it is absorbed by Mercury's core, the outer layers of its crust remain solid.
The temperature near the surface can reach 450 degrees Celsius (842 degrees Fahrenheit), but the center of the planet is probably too hot to live in. It may be capable of sustaining life, but not necessarily human life. There could be organisms there who find these conditions suitable.