The sun would rise and set later than usual in the spring and fall after the equinoxes, but sooner than usual in the summer and winter after the solstices. The reason for this is simple physics: Summer has more days in it than winter, so it must rise later to coincide with sunrise and set later to coincide with sunset.
This is true even if we exclude the daylight savings time that many countries use. These dates change every year based on when the equinox occurs. So instead of rising at sunrise and setting at sunset, the sun will rise and set when it reaches its highest point in the sky each day.
During a total solar eclipse, the moon blocks out most of the sunlight coming from the Sun, allowing observers on Earth to see shadows move across the surface of the Moon. During a partial solar eclipse, only part of the Sun's disk is obscured by the Moon.
People living far away from the equator can experience different seasons within a single year. If you're living somewhere near the equator, the climate should be consistent throughout the year. But since the Earth orbits the Sun once per year, there are times during the year when we are closer to the Sun and others when we are farther away. This is called an astronomical season.
Because our globe is tilted on its axis, the sun's path through the sky changes throughout the year. Days are getting longer as we move into spring, so there's no reason for the sun to set any later than it does now.
The earth's axial tilt affects when each season begins and ends. In the Northern Hemisphere, spring starts with the vernal equinox, which occurs when the center of Earth is aligned with the sun exactly at midday during the first day of spring. At that time, the north pole is directly facing the sun, while the south pole is facing away from it.
Fall begins with the autumnal equinox, which is when the sun is at exactly 12 o'clock high tide during the first day of fall. Winter begins with the ictalutous line, which is a term used by astronomers to describe the point on the horizon where the sun is completely hidden by clouds or fog. This happens approximately six weeks before midwinter, when the northern hemisphere is covered in a layer of ice.
Spring comes again, this time around the summer solstice, which is the longest day of the year.
On the Winter Solstice, the sun would rise at the western end of the tiniest track. It would not rise far in the sky and would only be visible for around 6 or 7 hours, leaving your days dark and chilly. The sun would rise at the east end of the middle track and set at the west end during the spring and fall equinoxes. During the summer solstice, it would rise at the eastern end of the biggest track and never set completely. During the spring and fall equinoxes, it would set at the eastern end of the middle track and never rise completely.
The altitude of the sun at its highest point during the day is called its "zenith." At midwinter, the zenith reaches its farthest point north or south, depending on the latitude of the sun's location. The sun always sets somewhere below the horizon at midwinter, but it may do so as far as 48 degrees north or south of the equator. South of the equator, midwinter marks the beginning of spring; north of the equator, midwinter marks the beginning of autumn.
At the summer solstice, the sun is at its highest position in the sky and doesn't move anymore throughout the day. It remains more or less over one spot on the horizon, which is why this time of year is called the "summer" solstice.
In contrast, as we near the summer solstice, sunlight becomes earlier and dusk becomes later. This is because the Earth circles the Sun at an irregular pace. It does not move at a constant speed, but rather accelerates and decelerates. This means that when it is close to the Sun, day is longer and in December it is time for sunset sooner after sunrise than at the spring equinox.
This effect is called "seasonal variation." The word "solstice" comes from the Latin word meaning "sun stands still," because at the winter and summer solstices the Sun is directly over the geographic south pole or north pole, respectively. At other times of the year, the Sun is somewhere between north and south.
The length of day and night at the winter and summer solstices depends on how far away the Earth is from the Sun. If the Earth was exactly opposite the Sun, then there would be no night and day; instead, there would be perpetual daylight throughout the year. As it is, the Earth has two different zones with very different seasons: one where it is warm and sunny most of the year, and another where it is cold and dark most of the year. These are called the "Northern Hemisphere" and "Southern Hemisphere," respectively. At the winter solstice, the Northern Hemisphere is furthest from the Sun and experiences a season of darkness and cold.