The Sun, Moon, and planets appear to travel through the sky in the same way as the stars do. Because of the Earth's rotation, everything in the sky appears to move in unison, spinning once every 24 hours. The Sun rises in the east and sets in the west because it is on Earth that it rises and sets. If Earth were not here, the Sun would still rise and set at those points, but since it does rise and set elsewhere, we know that it must be moving.
The Earth orbits the Sun once per year. During a single orbit around the Sun, the Earth travels a distance called "the ecliptic." The plane of the ecliptic is the plane of the Solar System. It passes through the center of our galaxy as well as the Milky Way galaxy itself. The Earth's location in space determines where it will find itself on the ecliptic at any given time. If the Earth were located anywhere else in its orbit, it would experience different amounts of sunlight during the course of a year.
Because the Earth goes through this motion while the Sun remains fixed in place, they appear to shift relative to each other across the sky. This is why astronomers say the Sun moves across the sky from east to west: They mean that it appears to move from north to south across the sky from our perspective on Earth.
Similarly, every point on the celestial equator is directly above from some point on Earth's equator. At any given moment, therefore, there are exactly two points on the Sun-Earth link pointing directly at the center of the Earth: the one at the North Pole and the one at the South Pole. These are called the Solar North and South Poles.
When viewed from the surface of the Earth, all of the Sun's light enters within a narrow band around 10 degrees either side of the horizon. This is because all directions are equal distance from the horizon. If all directions were not equal, then sunlight would be scattered in all directions, which it isn't. Only that part of the sky with more than half-full moonlight reaches the horizon; the rest goes over it.
So only the portion of the moon that is in view during a given moment is illuminated. The rest is hidden by Earth's shadow. As the Earth rotates, these "lunar phases" repeat themselves, giving us the full moon. However, since this is a curved surface, parts of the moon that were previously visible are now hidden, and vice versa.
ROTATION If you look up in the night sky for a few hours, you'll notice that the stars appear to rotate around a fixed point in the sky (which happens to be near the pole star, Polaris). This movement is caused by the rotation of the Earth. But they're actually standing still while we watch them go by.
ORBITS Many stars are part of a binary system which means they have a companion star located somewhere within our solar system. The two stars orbit each other every day or night with a period that can last from a few days to many hundreds of days. A star can also have an orbiting body such as a planet or moon. In this case, the planet or moon orbits the star every month or so in the same direction as the Earth orbits the Sun.
STAR SHOOTS Stars are also luminous objects that emit light over time. As a star ages, it heats up until it becomes a white dwarf or neutron star. At this point, the heat dissipates into space and it no longer emits any light at all. Other stars eventually run out of fuel and collapse under their own weight forming a black hole. Once a star has burned all its hydrogen fuel, it can no longer fuse helium together and convert it into energy. It will slowly consume itself by radiating away its remaining mass into space. Some stars burn their fuel more quickly than others, giving them a hotter surface temperature.