Yes, Mercury has some ice on its surface (ice). Mercury is the nearest planet to the Sun, so you'd think it'd be far too hot to contain any water on it. Mercury, on the other hand, has some extremely frigid places that may maintain frozen water (ice). The Earth's atmosphere protects us from the Sun's heat, which would otherwise vaporize all the water on Mercury in a matter of days.
However, although most of Mercury is quite cold, parts of it are very hot. Compounds containing mercury are found everywhere in the Solar System, but only in Mercury do we find elemental mercury. This is because when compounds containing mercury are broken down by solar radiation or inside living organisms, the elemental form of mercury can be absorbed into their system.
Once inside the body, elemental mercury becomes methylmercury, which is highly toxic. Methylmercury can bind to proteins and other molecules in the body, moving around from place to place until it finds an empty spot where it can settle in permanently. If you eat seafood then you're likely to consume small amounts of methylmercury every day. Although there is no evidence that shows how people process and remove mercury from their bodies, scientists assume that they either get rid of it through urine or feces or store it for later use.
The north and south poles of Mercury are the ideal areas to look for water ice. Because Mercury does not tilt like Earth, its poles never fully face the Sun. Craters with thick walls might remain entirely black, never seeing the light. But if one of these craters had an opening in its wall, perhaps caused by a meteorite impact, then sunlight might strike the dark interior and cause it to melt.
On the night side, heat from the planet's core probably reaches through to the crust, causing it to freeze into a solid shell. The frozen surface of Mercury is called a regolith. It lies over a large mass of rock that is mostly made up of iron, with some silicon and calcium mixed in. Beneath this crust, scientists think there may be a large reservoir of water trapped under pressure as hydrogen gas. This would make Mercury's atmosphere more similar to that of Uranus, which has 80 percent hydrogen, than Earth's, which has only 1%.
The discovery was made possible by the superior vision of astronaut William Anders while standing on the lunar horizon. He saw something strange and reported it by radio to Mission Control. They decided to check out what he had seen and found it was indeed ice.
Anders' sighting was confirmed when Apollo 14 astronauts Alan Shepard and Stuart Roosa also saw evidence of ice near the South Pole of Venus.
Mercury is a peculiar material in that it is a metal that is liquid at ambient temperature. This is feasible since liquid nitrogen is significantly colder than -38.83 degrees Celsius, while mercury freezes solid at -38.83 degrees Celsius...
...Yes, liquid mercury can freeze.
The freezing point of mercury is -89.2 degrees Celsius, but it usually occurs as a thin film on top of other material or inside glass containers. It is very reactive and will sometimes attack anything it comes into contact with, which is why lab equipment is often made from stainless steel or other materials that won't react with mercury. Mercury has the ability to move through metals, so it can travel in laboratory instruments including thermometers. However, it should not be allowed to evaporate because excess mercury is toxic. If you go outside and see smoke coming from your neighborhood incinerator, there may be traces of mercury in the ash.
The most common use for liquid mercury is in thermometers. When you read a thermometer, you are reading the temperature of whatever is being used as a marker by touching a bulbous tip filled with mercury. As the mercury warms up it expands slightly, making the needle on the thermometer drop in response. At some points during this expansion, the mercury will change phase from a liquid to a gas. These points are called "freezing points".
There is no atmosphere, seas, or apparent indications of life on the planet closest to the sun. While the day side is typically quite hot, the poles are frigid enough to hold megatons of water ice. There is evidence that the air above the ice is often filled with volcanic gases.
But there is another side to this planet that is rarely seen by humans. Mercury has many features that would have been useful in allowing living organisms to evolve, such as large lakes and oceans under very low-pressure environments. Some scientists also believe that it may have had moons like Venus or Earth at one time.
Mercury has no core, only a solid crust. But even though it isn't completely liquid like Earth's inner core, mercury does flow under its own weight throughout most of the planet. The outer part of the planet is so hot that any organic molecules that were present would have long since destroyed, but the deep cold of the inner planets could have allowed for the preservation of biomolecules over billions of years.
Mercury has almost all the chemical elements required for life except hydrogen. It has more carbon than other planets in our solar system because all the other planets tend to have less carbon than earth (with the exception of Neptune which has more carbon than hydrogen).
Mercury is uninhabitable because it lacks an atmosphere and has temperatures ranging from 212 to 1,292 degrees Fahrenheit (100 to 700 degrees Celsius). Their model included a planet with the same mass and circumference as Earth, as well as a similar atmosphere and surface water. However, the temperature on Mercury ranges from 212 to 1,292 degrees F (100 to 700 C), while Earth's average temperature is only 10 to 30 degrees F (14 to 34 C).
In addition to being significantly hotter than Earth, Mercury has very little air and no magnetic field. The solar wind blows away much of its atmosphere, and the lack of a magnetic field prevents its remaining atmosphere from being replenished.
The study also concluded that even if Mercury had all these things that made Earth livable, it would still be unfit for life as we know it. Its core is probably molten iron, which is too hot for anything but a solid nucleus at the center of the planet to exist. The rest of Mercury is probably cold and rocky like the rest of the planet, but studies have shown that any water present when the planet formed was lost long ago.
Scientists have found evidence of past life on Mercury in the form of organic molecules. In 2008, they reported finding carbon-based molecules with the same structure as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) here on Earth.
Mercury is not an easy planet to thrive on, but it is not impossible. It's worth mentioning that without a space suit, you wouldn't last long owing to a lack of atmosphere. Furthermore, Mercury experiences one of the biggest temperature variations in the solar system. From -300 degrees Celsius at night to 150 degrees during the day. This can be very dangerous for living organisms, so it is no surprise that it has been claimed that only 1 in 10,000 humans might survive on Mercury.
Of course, they would need to land their spaceship and there are no signs that this will ever happen. The same thing can be said about Venus, where life as we know it would be destroyed within days. Earth is the only place in our galaxy where life as we know it can exist, and will probably continue to exist for some time to come.
The fact is, we simply don't know what would happen if humans went down on another planet. Based on what we know now, we should not go there unless we have to.