Saturn and Jupiter both experience lightning storms that drop diamonds on them. (Best of luck with it.) Diamonds are formed from methane gas. Powerful lightning storms then zap the two huge gas giants into carbon soot. According to Baines, when the soot descends, the pressure on it rises. The soot then compacts into diamond crystals.
Jupiter has the most intense storm activity of all the giant planets and its atmosphere is made up of hydrogen molecules with a few helium atoms mixed in. As electrons orbit each atom they can lose energy through radio wave emissions or by colliding with other particles. This causes the atoms to vibrate more rapidly, which in turn produces more energetic electrons that can do even more damage through radiations of heat and light.
The Earth also experiences intense storm activity and its atmosphere is made up of nitrogen and oxygen molecules with a few gases such as argon and krypton mixed in. However, due to the lack of free electrons, these molecules cannot conduct an electrical current and thus are unable to support lightning strikes.
Stars are born out of clouds of gas and dust. When the first stars formed, they may have exploded as supernovas, sending heavy elements back into space where they can be reused for more star formation. This would make more stars like our Sun become available for solar systems to form around.
Solar systems tend to form in groups known as "clusters".
As soot clouds fall towards Saturn, they cluster together and create graphite, and as pressure builds up closer to the planet's core, that graphite is squeezed into pure diamond, literally showering diamonds on Saturn. This process can also occur with other objects in Saturn's orbit, such as comets and meteoroids.
In fact, Earthlings have found diamonds on all of Saturn's major moons except Enceladus.
The first evidence for water on Earth was found in 1772 on a remote island in Indonesia. The material was buried in shallow graves that were filled with broken stones that contained traces of iron oxide. Scientists think that this proves that ancient people visited Earth from another world, because only aliens would know how to make iron oxide particles to bury their dead with!
In 2005, scientists discovered evidence of past life on Earth when they found a small rock called a nanodiamond in a lunar sample returned by the Apollo 11 mission. On Earth, nanodiamonds are made only during high-energy events like explosions or asteroid impacts. So finding even a single nanodiamond out in space is proof that these powerful forces must have occurred in the past on Earth's moon!
In conclusion, Earth's neighbor Saturn has shown us that life exists elsewhere in the universe. We just have to look carefully enough.
Jupiter's Drops Scientists believe that the diamond production process on Saturn and Jupiter happens when elemental carbon generated by massive lightning storms on the planet reaches the planet's deep atmosphere, where pressure converts it to a diamond. Diamonds become liquid as they approach the core. Once liquid, they would still be under tremendous pressure, perhaps as high as 50 million pounds per square inch (2.5 billion Pa). However, due to its extreme density, only a very small amount of carbon is needed to make a diamond.
The average temperature at which diamonds form is about 1500 degrees Fahrenheit (816 degrees Celsius). On Earth, temperatures this low can be found in deep underground mines or near volcanoes. But since Jupiter doesn't have any volcanoes, all the diamonds must come from lightning. It's estimated that each year Jupiter gets about 100 flashes with energies greater than 1 billion watts, which is about the same as 60 million light bulbs going off at once.
The carbon atoms inside a diamond are bound together with electrons, forming a covalent bond with a net total of six electrons. This makes a diamond an insulator, able to block other substances from entering or leaving its surface. Other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, or silicon enter into the making of diamonds but always in smaller amounts than the originally present carbon.
Diamonds are used because they are the hardest material in the world.
High-pressure tests indicate that diamonds are created from methane on the ice giant planets Uranus and Neptune, while certain planets in other planetary systems may be practically pure diamond. Diamonds are also present in stars and are thought to be the first material to form. The presence of diamond on other planets or moons is inferred from its impact on their surfaces.
Uranus has a total mass about 99% hydrogen and 1% helium by volume. It has a diameter of 6399 miles and an average density of 1.88 times that of water. Although it appears to have no solid surface, there is a thin veneer of gas that covers most of Uranus. This gas layer is called an atmosphere and it consists of more than 90 percent hydrogen and 10 percent helium. The remaining fraction is other gases such as carbon dioxide, neon, oxygen, etc.
The majority of the planet's mass is made up of dark matter which accounts for 85%. The rest 15% is composed of light elements: hydrogen, helium, and traces of lithium and beryllium.
It showers diamonds deep beneath Neptune and Uranus, astronomers and physicists have speculated for over 40 years. The outer planets of our solar system, on the other hand, are difficult to investigate. Thus yet, only one space mission, Voyager 2, has passed by to expose some of their secrets, so diamond rain remains a theory.
Neptune is the fifth planet from the sun and the largest of the gas giants. It has a surface area about equal to that of Earth's water ice alone, and it takes 29 hours for Neptune to rotate around its axis. It has five large moons: Triton, discovered in 1782; Keto, discovered in 1790; Methuselah, discovered in 1969; Penélope, discovered in 1978; and Spouse, discovered in 1995.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun and the second biggest gas giant. Like Neptune, it has a very thick atmosphere made up of gases such as methane which have been blown away from underneath its icy surface. Its day is almost identical to Jupiter's- 11 hours-, but unlike Jupiter it does not spin completely round on its axis. Instead, there are two big rings made of frozen gases which circle the planet in opposite directions, like an inner and an outer ring. There are also 19 known moons.
Pluto is the ninth planet from the sun and the smallest of the major planets.