Jupiter has no stable surface, therefore if you try to stand on it, you will sink and be crushed by the immense pressure inside the planet. When we gaze at Jupiter, we are actually viewing the cloud's outermost layer. If you could stand on Jupiter's surface, you would feel intense gravity. According to scientists, if humans were to travel there in vehicles powered only by electricity from solar panels, they would need to keep their batteries charged for several years just to have a slight chance of survival.
Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar System. It is also the most massive object outside the Earth's atmosphere. Although it has a diameter about 78% that of Earth, its mass is more than 99.9% of Earth's, so it would feel like almost half as much gravity as here on Earth.
Since Jupiter is mostly made up of gases, it tends to move around the Sun faster than the other planets. So although it takes Jupiter 11 years to complete one orbit, the other planets only take 9 years to go around the Sun. This means that over time, all the planets will spread out from each other because of this difference in speed.
Astronomers believe that some millions of years from now, when our galaxy joins with another nearby galaxy to form a single cluster, the gravitational pull of these two galaxies will cause Jupiter to drift away from the other planets.
The swirly "surface" of Jupiter that we view from Earth is really the ammonia and methane clouds that make up the planet's very top layer. Because the planet is entirely formed of gases, standing on the surface would be impossible, yet there is no surface to stand on. The average distance between Jupiter's clouds is about 5500 miles.
Jupiter has three major geographic features: oceans, ice caps and volcanoes. Beneath its cloud cover are a thick crust and an interior made of hydrogen and helium with small amounts of zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium.
The ocean that covers most of Jupiter is called a "magma ocean". It lies deep under the gas giant's thin atmosphere and is composed mainly of molten rock. Although it is deep, the ocean probably doesn't reach down more than 10 miles because above that depth the pressure would be too great. However, due to the intense gravity of Jupiter, the ocean may be heated to 400 degrees Fahrenheit (200 degrees Celsius).
Ice caps cover much of Jupiter's southern hemisphere. They were once thought to be permanent places where water was locked up in ice, but new research suggests that they may change periodically or even sporadically. In fact, several planets have been discovered by scientists using radar technology that have changing ice caps!
Jupiter has four large moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
Jupiter has no solid surface to stand on, like as rocks or land. It's a massive gas planet made up of only two elements: the density of gas grows as you walk deeper into it. The highest point on Jupiter is called Tharsis Bulge and it measures about 8,000 miles from north to south. Even though it's a huge distance, it's not far enough for you to fall through into another world.
The air on Jupiter is very different to the air on Earth. On Earth, air is mostly empty space with some small particles suspended in it. But on Jupiter, there is so much pressure due to its intense gravity that it compresses the air down to less than one mile thick. This means that most of Jupiter is made up of hydrogen atoms with some helium molecules added to them.
It's hard to imagine but Jupiter was probably more like this when it was first created - before any life had a chance to evolve. Over time, heat from inside Jupiter caused its core to melt, producing a heavy mixture of hydrogen and helium gases that floated out to the rest of the planet. This is why Jupiter has such strong gravitational fields - even though it is made up of nothing but gas and ice, it has almost as much mass as all the other planets combined.
If you could stand on Jupiter's cloud tops, you would experience 2.5 times the gravity that you do on Earth. You'd die since it's a gas planet consisting of hydrogen, the lightest element in the Universe. But if by some miracle you were able to adapt your biology to live in this environment, you would need only 4% of your weight in air to support your body. This is less than one-third of a normal human being.
Jupiter has 72 moons, which provides an abundance of water ice for its clouds. The other nine planets in our solar system have been identified as having substantial amounts of water ice on their surfaces. This suggests that life as we know it may not be impossible after all.
In conclusion, yes, there is water on other planets in the galaxy!
The atmosphere of Jupiter is largely made up of hydrogen and helium gas. It would be a horrible idea to try to land on Jupiter. You'd be subjected to extremely high temperatures and would be stranded in mid-Jupiter with no way of escaping. The pressure would crush you like a bug.
The gravitational force on Earth is 9.8 m/s2. On Jupiter it's 16.5 m/s2. That's more than twice as strong! You could never reach the ground because the mass of Jupiter is over 318 Earth masses, so its influence extends far beyond its surface. Even if you did make it down to the surface, you wouldn't be able to get back up because the gravity is too strong.
If you were to travel to Jupiter, your trip would last about 10 minutes. Because of its large size, you would see lots of detail on the planet's surface. You would also feel a few earthquakes as tall buildings collapsed in New York City and London.
It's been suggested that anyone who touches Jupiter should be treated for cancer. This isn't true but it does show how much we don't know about astronomy.
Jupiter is so massive that 1321 Earths could fit within it. It's a gas giant, which means it's virtually completely made of gas with a liquid core of heavy metals. Because none of the gas giants have a solid surface, you cannot step on them, nor can spacecraft land on them. However, because they do contain a large amount of hydrogen, some scientists have suggested that perhaps there might be some water under the surface which could possibly support life.
Attempting to land on it would be like to attempting to land on a cloud on Earth. On Jupiter, there is no outer crust to halt your fall. First and foremost, Jupiter's atmosphere is devoid of oxygen. Therefore, humans could not survive living on Jupiter.
However, there are places on Jupiter where water may exist in liquid form. The north pole is covered by a thick layer of ice that reaches deep down into the planet's core. This ice contains large amounts of water molecules. In fact, it is estimated that the north polar cap is more than half water by mass.
Below the ice is another ocean made of liquid hydrogen. This ocean covers most of Jupiter's southern hemisphere.
These are the only two places on Jupiter where water may exist in liquid form. The rest of Jupiter is too cold for such behavior.
Furthermore, there are theories that say that perhaps deep inside Jupiter there might be conditions suitable for life as we know it. But even if this was true, it would still mean that Jupiter is incapable of supporting life as we know it. There is no air and temperatures range from -420 to 150 degrees Fahrenheit.
So yes, you can still live on Jupiter but you would have to make do with what there is to see.