The Moon is responsible for high and low tides. The tidal force is caused by the Moon's gravitational attraction. The tidal force causes the Earth—and its water—to expand out on the sides nearest to and furthest from the Moon. A high tide occurs when you are in one of the bulges. A low tide occurs when you are in one of the valleys between them.
The gravitational force of the Moon causes ocean waves, which are called lunar or mare tides for the Sea of Luna that lies within sight of Cape Town, South Africa. The amplitude of these waves reaches a maximum near the time of full moon and minimum around the time of new moon. The rate of rise and fall of sea level over several hours is approximately the same at all places close to shore, but this is not true for locations farther from shore where tidal currents can flow.
Lunar tides are responsible for many interesting effects at coastlines. As the Moon rises, it lights up the sky and can be seen with the naked eye. This is why astronomers use telescopes to see far away objects such as galaxies and quasars. The tidal force pulls on earth's surface and creates waves that carry energy away from the location of maximum tension (the place where the Moon is located) into the ocean. These waves move across the surface of the water spreading out from there and causing higher tides elsewhere.
Tides are the periodic rising and lowering of ocean waters induced by the sun's and moon's gravitational pulls. This results in a "bulge" in the seas nearest to the moon, resulting in a high tide. Simultaneously, inertial forces on the opposite side of the Earth generate a comparable "bulge," resulting in another high tide. The combined effect is that the seas are forced upward or downward, depending on which way around the Earth they are looking from space.
The rise and fall of tides is responsible for many things happening in nature. Tides cause earthquakes - when sea water rises over land surfaces, gravity wins out over friction causing an earthquake. As gravity takes its toll, the energy released can be very large, causing significant damage over a large area. However, if the land surface is sinking rather than rising, then the energy will be absorbed as stress is relieved rather than converted into an earthquake. Tides also influence the shapes of coastlines by acting on the rocks beneath them. Where there are steep cliffs, the impact of waves breaking against the rock can wear away the upper layers of stone, exposing more vulnerable lower-lying material. This is what happens where there are strong winds too; waves break against leeward (windward) coasts, washing away the shoreline. On the other hand, where the terrain is relatively level, there will be less removal of top soil because the waves break before they reach the cliff edge.
As the water bulges toward the moon, a high tide is formed. The "high high tide" refers to the high tide on the side of the Earth that faces the moon. The "low high tide" refers to the low tide induced by the bulge on the other side of the Earth.
The moon's gravity pulls on the ocean's surface water particles, causing them to orbit around it. As these waters rush back and forth between the moon and Earth, tides occur. The height of the tide depends on which body of water is involved: sea or lake. For example, the effect of the moon on the Atlantic Ocean is different from its effect on the Pacific Ocean. The rise and fall of the tide in any given location is called the local high tide or low tide. When you go to bed at the beginning of a lunar month and wake up at the end of it, you experience a new moon and full moon, respectively. As you can see, the term "new moon" is used for both the first night of the month and for every month after that as well.
Tides were first noted by ancient sailors who needed to know when it was safe to sail away from shore. They noticed that the level of the sea changed throughout the day even though there was no visible cause for this to be happening. So, they named these events "tides".