Mercury was called after the Roman deity of the sea, Mercury. The planet Venus was named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty, Venus. The Roman god of battle was Mars. Jupiter was the Roman deity of kingship, and Saturn was the Roman god of agriculture. These five planets are known as the classical planets. There are also two more planets that aren't considered classical planets but are still named after Roman deities: Rhea and Minerva.
The Sun has been named after the Latin word for "sun," sol. The Moon has been named after the Latin word for "moon," luna.
There are other names for some of the planets in our solar system. Uranus is the Roman name for the heavens. Neptune is the Roman name for the ocean. Pluto is the Roman name for the underworld.
So yes, the stars in the night sky are named after Roman gods.
Except for Earth, all of the planets were named after Greek and Roman gods and goddesses. The names Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, Venus, and Mercury were given thousands of years ago. Mars was the Roman god of war, and Venus was the Roman goddess of love.
The planet Earth had no name until 1829, when Johann Georg von Braun identified it as the site where life arose from inorganic matter. He called it "Gaia" - after the goddess of justice, wisdom, and earth fertility - to emphasize that it was a unique location worthy of protection. In English, "Earth" is a generic term for the world's surface environment or ground, so Braun was saying that Gaia was special because it was protective over everything else too.
He suggested it as a replacement for "Sol Invictus", which some people were using at the time. Sol is Latin for "the sun", and Invictus is unable to be defeated meaning "unconquerable". Thus, Earth would be invincible even though it wasn't the only planet in the universe.
Braunn published his findings in Germany, and it took several decades before his idea was accepted worldwide. By then, many scientists had come to believe that Earth was not the only place that could support life, so they didn't think it necessary to give it a name.
Mercury, like all the planets, is named after a Roman god, who was based on the gods worshiped by the Ancient Greeks. In Roman mythology, Mercury was the son of Maia Maiestas and Jupiter, and most of his attributes were based on the Greek god Hermes. He was often depicted as a young man with wings like a bird, which is why we use his symbol, a-slate-with-two-wings, to represent both ideas.
During Rome's early years, they didn't have a king or a ruler, so they used priests called "Flamens" to pray to the gods for guidance. The Flamen Dialis was the priest of Jupiter, and it was he who decided what role each person would play during important events in the life of the city. The first recorded ceremony held in honor of Mercury is said to have taken place in 753 BC when the Romans sought good weather for their first expedition to Italy. They made the sign of the cross between two tents to protect their army from attack by lightning.
In addition to being the god of commerce, travel, and messages, Mercury was also associated with medicine, science, writing, arithmetic, thieves, and fishing. His symbols are a feather and a caduceus (rod with snakes wrapped around it).
Virgo is the Virgin goddess.
Astronomers have agreed to keep naming planets after Roman gods. Neptune, a blueish planet, was named after the Roman sea deity Neptune.
The idea comes from the fact that in the ancient world, planets were seen as deities' gifts to mankind. Thus, astronomers think it appropriate to name new discoveries after these ancient gods.
Neptune was first discovered in 1846 by American astronomer William C. Redfield. It has a mass about 17% of Earth's and is about 23% more massive than Jupiter. The average density of Neptune is about 1.35 times that of Earth. Its mean distance from the Sun is 5.2 billion miles (8.4 million km).
Its year is 164 days long and it orbits the Sun once every 12 years. Like all other planets, it revolves around the center of its own star; however, because of its large size compared with Earth, Neptune's orbit is almost circular.
It crosses the face of the Sun twice a year and can be seen from Earth during such events. From our point of view, it goes behind the Sun in June and emerges again in December.
Jupiter is Zeus's Roman name. Because it is the biggest planet, Jupiter is called after the ruler of the gods. Thursday is likewise ruled by Jupiter. Because English is a Germanic language, it nicknamed Jupiter's day "Thor's Day." Thor was a Germanic (Norse) deity who resembled Jupiter in many ways. He had a mighty arm and a hammer, and used them to punish bad people.
Zeus was the Greek name for Jupiter. It means "ruler" or "lord."
In English, the word "Zeus" has been used as a proper name since the 16th century. The first known use of the name as a part of Jupiter appears in the works of Latin poet Lucan (39-65 A.D.).
Zeus was not the only Roman god to have his name applied to Jupiter. There were also numerous other deities with names that ended in "-us" who were considered brothers to Jupiter. Some examples are Faunus, Janus, Mars, Quirinus, Saturnus.
The fact that these were all major gods in ancient Rome makes it impossible to list every one of their names. However, we do know that each one of them had several attributes that made them different from one another. For example, Faunus had nothing to do with agriculture; he was the god of hunting and nature.
Mars was the Roman god of battle and the second most powerful deity in the Roman pantheon after Jupiter. Although most of the mythology surrounding the deity were derived from the Greek god of battle, Ares, Mars did have certain characteristics that were essentially Roman. For example, he was usually depicted as a warrior with red hair and beard who carried a spear and shield, and had some similarities to the Greek god Hephaestus. In addition, like many Roman deities, his symbols included a cornucopia for being giver of fruit, and a sword and torch for fighting and guiding travelers.
Greek mythology has many characters who share similar traits with Mars including Ares, Phobos (fear), Deimos (terror), Haemon (bloodlust). However, while all of these characters had relationships with humans, they were all gods who fought and killed other people. Thus, Mars was unique in that he was both human and divine.
Early Christians adopted many elements from Greco-Roman culture including their religion. Thus, it isn't surprising that they also borrowed some of these characters to create a new mythology for themselves. For example, they named one of their planets Mars after the Roman god of war.
In addition, several other characters within Christian mythology are related to Mars including: St. Michael the Archangel, St. George, Titus Lucretius Carus, Virgil, and Ovid.